Smart Search 

Title of the article



ALGIN Vladimir B., D. Sc. in Eng., Prof., Deputy Director General for Research, Joint Institute of Mechanical Engineering of the NAS of Belarus, Minsk, Republic of Belarus, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Year 2018 Issue 3 Pages 5–17
Type of article RAR Index UDK 629.34:621.3 Index BBK  

The paper is of an analytical nature and is devoted to the systematization of approaches that take place in the tasks of creating an urban fleet of electric buses. A holistic view on the problem including comparison of buses with different types of propulsion systems is presented. The paper introduces requirements for data and documents reflecting the main factors and stages of creating a fleet of electric buses. These stages are the following: 1 — analysis of possible variants of “electric bus — charging configuration” for the routes under consideration and ensuring their technical feasibility; 2 — economic analysis of the total cost of ownership for the fleet; 3 — development of a business plan; 4  — support for the transition process on basis of the concept of an “open system”. The composition of the initial data and their formats with corresponding examples are given in the framework of the first stage. The key procedure of the first stage is to determine the electric power consumption of an electric bus, taking into account the parameters of its design, charging configuration and route features. Methods and tools for estimating the energy consumption of an electrical bus (cost distance analysis, modelling the operation, etc.) are analyzed and features of the methods are presented. The total cost of ownership (TCO) is assumed as the decisive factor in the second and subsequent stages. Structure and sensitivity of TCO are analyzed. The paper presents part of the ongoing research within the framework of the project PLATON: Planning Process and Tool for Step-by-Step Conversion of the Conventional or Mixed Bus Fleet to a 100 % Electric Bus Fleet. The project was approved for funding in the ERA-NET Electric Mobility Europe Call 2016. Project period is 01.2018–06.2020.


bus propulsion systems, urban electric bus, route, charging infrastructure, electric bus fleet creation, main stages, data, factors

  You can access full text version of the article.
  • Electric. Mobility. Europe. Available at: https://www.electric (accessed 11 May 2018).
  • PLATON. Available at: (accessed 28 May 2018).
  • Nikolić Z., Živanović Z. The Contribution and Prospects of the Technical Development on Implementation of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. New Generation of Electric Vehicles, 2012, ch. 2, pp. 27–66.
  • Hanlin J. Battery Electric Buses Smart Deployment, Zero Emission Bus Conference, London, 2016. Available at:
  • Mohamed M., Garnett R., Ferguson M.R., Kanaroglou P. Electric Buses: A Review of Alternative Powertrains. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2016, vol. 62, pp. 673–684.
  • Urban buses: alternative powertrains for Europe. The Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, 2012. Available at:,_alternative_powertrains_for_Europe_-_Final_report.pdf.
  • Lajunen A. Energy consumption and cost-benefit analysis of hybrid and electric city buses. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 2014, vol. 38, pp. 1–15.
  • Feng W., Figliozzi M. An economic and technological analysis of the key factors affecting the competitiveness of electric commercial vehicles: A case study from the USA market. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 2013, vol. 26, pp. 135–145.
  • Feng W., Figliozzi M. Conventional vs Electric Commercial Vehicle Fleets: A Case Study of Economic and Technological Factors Affecting the Competitiveness of Electric Commercial Vehicles in the USA. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2012, vol. 39, 702–711.
  • Eudy L., Jeffers M. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results: Second Report. Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-67698. 2017. 59 p.
  • Prohaska R., Eudy L., Kelly K. Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation. No. NREL/CP-5400-66098. IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo (ITEC). Dearborn, 2016. Available at:
  • King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration — Preliminary Project Results. 2017. Available at:
  • Electric Buses in Cities. Driving Towards Cleaner Air and Lower CO2. 2018. Available at: https://c40-production
  • ZeEUS eBus Report #2. An updated overview of electric buses in Europe. 2018. Available at:
  • Krawiec S., Karoń G., Janecki R., Sierpiński G., Krawiec K., Markusik S. Economic conditions to introduce the battery drive to busses in the urban public transport. Transportation Research Procedia, 2016, vol. 14, pp. 2630–2639.
  • Fusco G., Alessandrinia A., Colombaronia C., Valentinic M.P. A model for transit design with choice of electric charging system. Procedia — Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2013, vol. 87, pp. 234–249.
  • Göhlich D., Kunith A., Ly T. Technology assessment of an electric urban bus system for Berlin. Urban Transport XX. WIT Transactions on The Built Environment., 2014, vol. 138, pp. 137–149.
  • Olsson O., Grauers A., Pettersson S. Method to analyze cost effectiveness of different electric bus systems. Proceedings of EVS29 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 2016. Available at:
  • Life-Cycle Costing (LCC) calculation tool. Available at: (accessed 05 July 2018).
  • Rogge M., Wollny S., Sauer D.U. Fast charging battery buses for the electrification of urban public transport – a feasibility study focusing on charging infrastructure and energy storage requirements. Energies, 2015, vol. 8(5), pp. 4587–4606.
  • Lindgren L. Full electrification of Lund city bus traffic – a  simulation study. Lund, Lund institute of technology, 2015. 51  p.
  • TOSA buses power up for less. Available at: (accessed 16 June 2014).
  • Nurhadi L., Borén S., Ny H. A sensitivity analysis of total cost of ownership for electric public bus transport systems in Swedish medium sized cities. Proceedings of the 17th Meeting of the EURO Working Group on Transportation, EWGT2014. Sevilla, 2014, pp. 818–827.
  • Mohamed M., Farag H., El-Taweel N., Ferguson M. Simulation of Electric Buses on a Full Transit Network: Operational Feasibility and Grid Impact Analysis. Electric Power Systems Research, 2017, vol. 142, pp. 163–175.
  • Masliakova K. Optimal routing and charging procedures for electric buses. Master Thesis. Narvik, 2016. 78 p.
  • Andersson M. Energy storage solutions for electric bus fast charging station. Cost optimization of grid connection and grid reinforcements. Master Thesis. Uppsala. 72 p.
  • Gao Z., Lin Z., LaClair T.J., Liu C., Li J.-M., Birky A.K., Ward  J. Battery capacity and recharging needs for electric buses in city transit service. Energy, 2017, vol. 122, pp. 588–600.
  • Tokoro M. Open Systems Dependability and DEOS: Concept, Retrospect and Prospects, Proceedings of Sixth Workshop on Open Systems Dependability. Tokyo, 2017, pp. 1–4.
  • Perrotta D., Macedo J.L., Rossetti R.J., Freire de Sousa J., Kokkinogenis Z., Ribeiro B., Afonso J.L. Route planning for electric buses: a case study in Oporto, Proceedings of the 16th Meeting of the EURO Working Group on Transportation, EWGT2013. Porto, 2013. Available at: