An abstract (synopsis) in a periodical is a source of information on your paper’s content and findings.

An abstract (synopsis) has the following functions:

  • allows readers to identify the basic concept of your paper as well as its relevance and decide if the full text paper is of interest to them;
  • provides information on your paper and makes it unnecessary to read its full text version if it is of secondary interest to a reader;
  • is used in information (including computerized) search systems to find papers and information.

Аn abstract (synopsis) should be:

  • informative (no general words);
  • original;
  • relevant (reflects your paper’s key content and research findings);
  • structured (follows the logics of results’ presentation in the paper);
  • concise (between 200 and 250 words).

Аn abstract (synopsis) should include the following:

a statement of the object and purpose of your study;
research methods/methodology;
results observed;
the results’ sphere of application;
conclusions drawn from your study.

These elements do not necessarily have to be presented in the order shown above; you could place your most important results and conclusions first.

The object, topic and purpose of the research should be included if they are not clear from the title of the paper.
It is appropriate to describe the research methods/methodology if they are original or of interest for this particular research. For papers concerned with experimental work describe your data sources and data procession technique.
Describe your results as precisely and informatively as possible. Include your key theoretical and experimental results, factual information, revealed interconnections and patterns. Give special priority in your abstract to new results and long-term impact data, important discoveries and verified findings that contradict previous theories as well as data that you think have practical value.
Conclusions could be associated with recommendations, estimates, suggestions, hypotheses described in the paper.

Information contained in the title should not be doubles in the abstract (synopsis). Try to avoid unnecessary introductory phrases (e.g. “the author of the paper considers…”).
You should avoid historic references (unless they are part of the key content of the paper), description of previously published papers and well-known facts in your abstract (synopsis).
Use the language typical of research and technical documents to compile your abstract (synopsis) and avoid complex grammatical constructions.
The text of the abstract (synopsis) should include key words of the paper.